Praga, romantica, indimenticabile e affascinante

La città dorata - La città delle cento torri - Il cuore d'Europa; queste sono solo alcune dei modi con i quali si cerca di descrivere Praga.

Praga deve molto del suo fascino e della sua storia a Carlo IV, figlio dell'imperatore del sacro romano impero e della figlia del re di Boemia, che ha fatto di Praga la sua capitale dopo essere diventato egli stesso imperatore.

Protagonista indiscusso del paesaggio praghese è il fuime Moldava che taglia in due la città: da una parte si trova il Castello, Hradcany, Mala Strana e la tranquillità delle strade e degli spazi verdi al di là del fiume, dall’altra il caos turistico della Città Vecchia, di Piazza Venceslao, di Nove Mesto e di tutta la sconfinata zona circostante.

Le 2 parti della città sono collegate dal famosissimo "Ponte Carlo", il ponte di pieta costruito per volere dell'imperatore Carlo IV nel quattordicesimo secolo.

Praga, Ponte Carlo

Uno dei quartieri più interessanti di Praga è la zona ebrea di Josefov, quì la comunità ebrea da vive da oltre mille anni. Fin dal medioevo, commercianti ebrei negoziavano con le Comunità ebree di Francoforte o di Cracovia. All'interno del quartiere si trova il Vecchio Cimitero,  fondato nel 1439  e rimasto per oltre 300 anni l’unico luogo dove gli ebrei di Praga potevano seppellire i loro morti.

Probabilmente è il più conosciuto cimitero ebraico del Mondo, persino i nazisti lo risparmiarono per chi sa quale motivo. Le dimensioni attuali sono all’incirca quelle medievali, perché il cimitero non poteva espandersi fuori dal perimetro esistente: così, nel tempo, si sopperì alla mancanza di spazio sovrapponendo le tombe (per gli ebrei è sacrilegio riesumare le tombe). 

Praga, cimitero ebraico

In alcuni punti si formarono fino a nove strati di diverse sepolture: le lapidi  (di arenaria o di marmo le piu’ importanti) venivano staccate dal suolo, veniva ammonticchiata della terra per una nuova sepoltura (per questo il cimitero è pieno di collinette e dislivelli) e veniva ricollocata la vecchia lapide con accanto la nuova. Senza quasi più una corrispondenza diretta con la persona della quale erano e sono testimonianza e memoria.

Tra i personaggi illustri che vi sono vissuti spicca il rabbino Loew, che secondo la leggenda creò il Golem, mostro mitologico della tradizione ebraica.

Orologio Praga

Praga è una città con mille facce, stupisce e non stanca mai, è perciò austera ed antica, nordica e moderna, tradizionale e mondana, monumentale e funzionale, insomma una città veramente speciale che mi ha colpito più di quanto potessi immaginare.  Le vie sono pulite, i mezzi di trasporto sono eccellenti, non mancano i divertimenti e poi, soprattutto, il suo patrimonio monumentale è realmente infinito (il centro di Praga è dichiarato patrimonio dell'umanità dall'UNESCO). Insomma prima o poi ritorneremo.

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